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In alcoholic fatty liver spasms under ribs buy generic lioresal 10mg line, a reversible condition if the patient abstains muscle relaxant gel india buy discount lioresal 25 mg on-line, fatty acids are not oxidised and triglyceride production increases muscle relaxant gel uk buy discount lioresal 25 mg online. Right-sided abdominal pain, fever, icterus, ascites and, sometimes, encephalopathy, may be present. There may be hypotension, hypertonic urine, low urinary output, low urinary sodium, and indicators of advanced liver disease. Chronic pancreatitis leads to pancreatic insufficiency, malabsorption, and chronic pain with the possibility of analgesic dependence. Beer confers a greater risk than spirits and moderate wine intake does not increase the risk. Jackson ea, 1991; Mukamal ea, 2003) although the margin between what is safe and what is harmful is narrow (Doll ea, 1994b; Fuchs ea, 1995; Bobak ea, 2000) and the evidence for any protection is not certain. However, indiscriminate advice to non-drinkers to take up alcohol for health reasons is extremely inappropriate. Moderate intake of alcohol in healthy people may increase insulin sensitivity and possibly reduce the risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Fatal residential fires can arise from many sources (living in a mobile home, no fire detector, etc), but alcohol abuse is one of the commoner causes. Causes of death include cirrhosis, cancer2569 (mouth, pharynx, larynx, liver, breast cancer in women), injuries, etc. Official alcohol-related deaths for the Republic of Ireland for 1990, 1995 and 1999 were 106, 146 and 269 respectively. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms may be due to a reduced inhibitory function 2571 and/or increased activity of excitatory systems2572. If a person drinks heavily at a single sitting they may experience hangover 2573 effects. Rarely, transient, generalised choreoathetoid movements may occur during alcohol withdrawal. Apart from cranial trauma, alcoholic coma (excess alcohol alone or alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia) must be differentiated from other pathology. Preparations containing multivitamins are available for oral and parenteral use ­ thiamine can be injected on its own or in a multivitamin preparation such as Pabrinex. Beta-blocking drugs such as propranolol have been used to reduce the risk of arrhythmias and to manage prominent tachycardia and tremor. Should a neuroleptic be required it is better to use haloperidol because it is less like to cause seizures and is safer than many other agents in the presence of liver disease. Most patients with mild-to-moderate withdrawal symptoms do not require in-patient detoxification, but can be treated safely and effectively as outpatients, with considerable cost savings. The idea of rejecting a patient for a liver transplant because of a history of excess alcohol intake per se is ethically flawed. Disulfiram was once commonly used in aversion therapy (alcohol given at the same time). Problems for research include anonymity among attendees and a stated prohibition on engagement in research. Founded in Akron, Ohio in 1935 by Dr Bob S (Robert Smith), 1879-1950, and Bill W (Wilson), 1895-1971. Bibliotherapeutic approaches to alcoholism are somewhat superior to doing nothing at all but may not be as efficacious as more extensive interventions ­ the best results seem to be for those cases who seek treatment (not severe cases) and offer specific strategies such as setting goals or showing how one can cope without resorting to drinking. The 12-Step approach was manualised in 1992: 774 teams with abstinence as the goal. Longer duration in treatment correlates with better outcome but, since this does not hold up with random assignment to different lengths in therapy, the relationship is probably biased by better-motivated clients choosing to stay in treatment for longer. Increases in the number of units considered to be safe as suggested by the British government in 1995 met with deserved criticism! The relationship between dose of alcohol consumed and mortality may be stronger for young people. However, alcohol problems reappear before work problems do and close monitoring is advisable for at least a year after resumption of work. Opinion on whether controlled drinking is possible for some alcoholics is still divided,(Tobin ea, 1993) although most programmes advise total abstinence. It is extremely difficult to foretell which problematic drinkers can control their alcohol intake in advance.

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The time-honoured differentiation between true and pseudo-hallucinations can be very difficult to muscle relaxant pregnancy category purchase lioresal 10mg otc make in practice muscle relaxant use in elderly 10mg lioresal for sale. There may be perplexity (ideas of reference muscle relaxer 93 order 25 mg lioresal overnight delivery, persecution or grandiosity may be fleeting), depression or elation1123, flattening or blunting of affect, anger, or incongruous emotional display. Behaviour may be characterised by withdrawal, bizarre activity, or catatonia (vide infra). Full-blown catatonia is more likely to be seen today in people coming from the Third World or in people from isolated localities. However, catatonia has many causes other than schizophrenia and more subtle manifestations should be actively sought. Most cases will have recurrent episodes with positive symptoms, often without any prodrome. The interviewer finds it difficult to get straightforward answers to simple questions. Unlike the dysphasic, the schizophrenic has no idea that he is difficult to understand. Less words than normal are employed, words, phrases and even syllables are repeated. An excess of thought disorder has been found in relatives of schizophrenics and interpreted as being due to shared genes rather than rearing. Others have found profound deficits of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in early- but not late-onset schizophrenia, while others found evidence for defective prepulse inhibition, probably genetically transmitted, in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality disorder (Hazlett ea, 2003) and the relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The authors felt that their findings supported continuity between early and later-onset cases. Onset can be acute with disturbed behaviour, or insidious with gradual development of odd ideas and conduct. Course is variable and specifiable (by 5-character categories) as continuous, episodic with progressive/stable defect, episodic remittent, incomplete/complete remission, other, and observation less than a year. Symptoms must be present for at least one month (except for simple schizophrenia where at least one year is required). The one-month criterion only applies to certain symptoms: thought echo, delusions of control, commenting hallucinatory voices, culturally inappropriate and completely impossible persistent delusions, persistent hallucinations in any modality, breaks/interpolations in train of thought, catatonic behaviour, and negative symptoms such as blunt affect or self-absorption. It does not include a retrospective recognition of a prodrome: loss of interest, social withdrawal, poor hygiene, anxiety, mild depression, preoccupation, etc. Avoid a diagnosis of schizophrenia in the presence of overt brain disease or during drug intoxication/withdrawal. Similar conditions developing in the presence of epilepsy or other brain disease are coded under F06. The disturbance has lasted at least 6 months, including at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms: 2 or more delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms. The subtypes are: paranoid 1128 (preoccupation with 1 or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations), disorganised 1129 (disorganised speech and behaviour, flat or inappropriate affect), catatonic (motor immobility, excess motor activity, extreme negativism, peculiarities of voluntary movement, echolalia, echopraxia), undifferentiated (not meeting criteria for foregoing subtypes ­ commonest type in clinical practice), and residual (no prominent symptoms or signs, but has attenuated features. A mood episode plus active phase schizophrenic symptoms occur together and are preceded or followed by at least 2 weeks of delusions or hallucinations without prominent mood symptoms. At least 1 month of non-bizarre delusions without other active phase schizophrenic symptoms. Seven subtypes, depending on the prominent delusional theme: erotomanic, grandiose (megalomania, delusions of personal greatness), jealous (infidelity of sexual partner), persecutory (persecution of self or of others emotionally close to self), somatic (false belief one has physical defect or general medical condition; monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis: parasitophobia, insects in skin, dysmorphophobia or body dysmorphic disorder, body odours 1130, and non-functioning body parts), mixtures of foregoing, and unspecified because delusions do not fit into any specified category. Males with schizophrenia appear to be more prone to suffer from a defect state than do schizophrenic women, although this is not an absolute. Disorganised is synonymous with hebephrenic: early onset, poor social/occupational functioning, more severe illness, and poorer longterm prognosis than the paranoid subtype. The patient may be deluded and hallucinated but these phenomena are not as prominent as in the paranoid subtype. However, Clouston, Pick and Sommer and others described a similar state before him). Elvevеg ea (2003) found that schizophrenics are relatively inaccurate at estimating brief time periods (< 1 s). Thought disorder might be due to dysfunction of the cortico-subcortical loops that project into the prefrontal cortex. Executive processes include a broad range of operations involved in initiating and maintaining controlled information processing and co-ordinated mental activity.

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Participatory water resources planning and management in an agriculturally intensive watershed in Quebec muscle relaxant prescriptions generic lioresal 10 mg without prescription, Canada using stakeholder built system dynamics models muscle relaxant withdrawal lioresal 25mg online. Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio Conventions muscle relaxant valerian discount 25mg lioresal. Improving the enabling environment to combat land degradation: Institutional, financial, legal and science-policy challenges and solutions. Review of South Island high country land management issues: Joint submission to the Ministerial High Country Review Committee from the New Zealand Ecological Society and the New Zealand Society of Soils Science. A comparative assessment of decisionsupport tools for ecosystem services quantification and valuation. Volunteers and their organisations in the recording and monitoring of biodiversity. Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Developing and applying a framework to evaluate participatory research for sustainability. Co-management of natural resources: Organising, negotiating and learning-by-doing. Using multi-agent systems in a companion modelling approach for agroecosystem management in South-east Asia. Connectivity and the Governance of Multilevel SocialEcological Systems: the Role of Social Capital. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress. Impact of multiple interacting financial incentives on land use change and the supply of ecosystem services. Investigating syndromes of agricultural land degradation through past trajectories and future scenarios. Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project. Integrated land degradation monitoring and assessment: Horizontal knowledge management at the national and international levels. Integrating ecophysiology and plankton dynamics into projected maximum fisheries catch potential under climate change in the Northeast Atlantic. Towards sustainable land management in the drylands: scientific connections in monitoring and assessing dryland degradation, climate change and biodiversity. Potential synergies between existing multilateral environmental agreements in the implementation of land use, land-use change and forestry activities. Measuring socioeconomic outcomes of forest and watershed restoration: state of the field. Size-dependent life-history traits promote catastrophic collapses of top predators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(20), 12907­12912. The use of market-based in struments for biodiversity protection ­ the case of habitat banking. Climate change adaptation and cross-sectoral policy coherence in southern Africa (No. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to identify dryland ecosystem service trade-offs under different rangeland land uses. Estimating the impacts of conservation on ecosystem services and poverty by integrating modeling and evaluation. Examining multi-functionality for crop yield and ecosystem services in five systems of agroecological intensification. A Comparative Analysis of Accountability Mechanisms for Ecosystem Services Markets in the United States and the European Union.

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Workers and students showed a positive perception spasms pregnancy after tubal ligation buy lioresal 10 mg overnight delivery, although slight muscle relaxant sciatica purchase lioresal 25 mg visa, bout the impact of tourism in environmental aspects (mean = 3 spasms just before sleep generic 10 mg lioresal with mastercard. The results suggest that workers and students who develop their activity in parishes were tourism activity is greater Cedofeita, Santo Ildefonso, Sй, Miragaia, Sгo Nicolau e Vitуria (mean = 3. Of the aspects studied, we can highlight that it is socio-cultural that has the most expressive value. Regarding the place of work/study, it influences the perception of economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. The results suggest that the respondents consider that tourism in Porto is growing harmoniously with the city and tourism activity has a direct influence on the overall improvement of Porto Downtown. In general residents showed a positive perception of tourism impacts in all the aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental, although it is perceived that the respondents have a more positive perception the greater the distance from their home and workplace/study to the places of greatest tourist 523 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 pressure in the city. This evidence suggests that tourism development process in Porto is in an expansion phase and that if residents have an important role in any tourist destination, it is necessary to count on the participation and support of the local population in the models of tourism development, as essential elements for the success of destination management and planning. La percepciуn de los impactos socio-culturales del turismo por la poblaciуn residente. A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences. Structural modeling of resident perceptions of tourism and associated development on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. Tourism dependence and host community perceptions: Notes on the social exchange theory. The cooperation of companies, depending on the structural characteristics and targets, is increasingly becoming an alternative to conquer other markets. However, in spite of the various legal and doctrinal conceptions that involve this legal business, it presents itself as a common enterprise, having as content the common purpose itself and the obligation to pursue it. These instruments aim at the union and approaching companies for carrying out a joint project that otherwise would not be possible to achieve. Their structure leads to an analysis, which we will carry out, through doctrine, and real examples, seeking to highlight the main commercial legal aspects. Globalization has brought complex cooperative relations between companies contributing decisively to the exponential economic development. In developing countries, the needs for strategic alliances arose, above all, after the Second World War, serving the purposes of the much desired economic independence, especially by companies located on the old continent, eager for recovery. In turn, in Eastern European countries, joint ventures were the recommended solution for opening up to foreign investment (Pinheiro, 2003). Along with the relationships between companies, in which each maintains their individuality, there are cases of concentration, where the dilution of the personality of each is shown. We found that these relationships arose under the guise of a business phenomena cooperation or, even, business concentration, having contributed to the appearance of joint ventures. In terms of business internationalization, we found that business cooperation has been a dominant attitude. Consequently, these instruments come to occupy a prominent place and provide legal support for this type of relationship. Whenever cooperation takes on the shape of business internationality, the figure of joint venture contracts is particularly prominent. These are achieved through a link between two or more companies that want to pursue a common project. There are determining factors for its value that must be considered, in the scope of international commercial relations and in the conquest, by the companies, of new markets. It is important to bear in mind that the use of this type of instruments, which enhance strategic alliances, is mainly related to the high costs of 526 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 technological innovation. Through these types of contracts, it is possible to achieve, on the one hand, risk sharing, on the other hand, investment expenses. Similarly, states that receive foreign investment often demand from their investors, usually multinationals from developed countries, the participation of their local companies in the businesses in question. In this way, they intend to achieve the deserved development and the much desired international visibility. Regarding small and medium-sized companies, it has been verified and is still verified, nowadays, that they will only be able to reach the longed for internationalization through the existence of intense business collaboration. Roughly speaking, this cooperation proves to be a skillful mechanism for implementing business strategies.

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Quite predictably spasms due to redundant colon buy generic lioresal 10mg on line, many of the talented bloggers and new media entrepreneurs preferred to muscle relaxants generic lioresal 10mg line work for the extremely well-paid but largely ineffective Western-funded projects instead of trying to spasms feel like baby kicking purchase 25mg lioresal otc create more nimble, sustainable, and, above all, effective projects of their own. Thus, everything we did-with generous funding from Washington and Brussels-seemed to have produced the results that were the exact opposite of what my cyber-utopian self wanted. It was tempting to throw my hands up in despair and give up on the Internet altogether. But this would have been the wrong lesson to draw from these disappointing experiences. Similarly, it would be wrong for Western policymakers to simply dismiss the Internet as a lost cause and move on to bigger, more important issues. Such digital defeatism would only play into the hands of authoritarian governments, who would be extremely happy to continue using it as both a carrot (keeping their populace entertained) and a stick (punishing those who dare to challenge the official line). Rather, the lesson to be drawn is that the Internet is here to stay, it will continue growing in importance, and those concerned with democracy promotion need not only grapple with it but also come up with mechanisms and procedures to ensure that another tragic blunder on the scale of Abu Ghraib will never happen in cyberspace. How hard is it to imagine a site like Facebook inadvertently disclosing the private information of activists in Iran or China, tipping off governments to secret connections between the activists and their Western funders? To be truly effective, the West needs to do more than just cleanse itself of cyber-utopian bias and adopt a more realist posture. When it comes to concrete steps to promote democracy, cyber-utopian convictions often give rise to an equally flawed approach that I dub "Internetcentrism. While cyber-utopianism stipulates what has to be done, Internet-centrism stipulates how it should be done. Internet-centrists like to answer every question about democratic change by first reframing it in terms of the Internet rather than the context in which that change is to occur. They are often completely oblivious to the highly political nature of technology, especially the Internet, and like to come up with strategies that assume that the logic of the Internet, which, in most cases, they are the only ones to perceive, will shape every environment than it penetrates rather than vice versa. While most utopians are Internet-centrists, the latter are not necessarily utopians. In fact, many of them like to think of themselves as pragmatic individuals who have abandoned grand theorizing about utopia in the name of achieving tangible results. Sometimes, they are even eager to acknowledge that it takes more than bytes to foster, install, and consolidate a healthy democratic regime. Their realistic convictions, however, rarely make up for their flawed methodology, which prioritizes the tool over the environment, and, as such, is deaf to the social, cultural, and political subtleties and indeterminacies. Internet-centrism is a highly disorienting drug; it ignores context and entraps policymakers into believing that they have a useful and powerful ally on their side. Pushed to its extreme, it leads to hubris, arrogance, and a false sense of confidence, all bolstered by the dangerous illusion of having established effective command of the Internet. All too often, its practitioners fashion themselves as possessing full mastery of their favorite tool, treating it as a stable and finalized technology, oblivious to the numerous forces that are constantly reshaping the Internet- not all of them for the better. Treating the Internet as a constant, they fail to see their own responsibility in preserving its freedom and reining in the ever-powerful intermediaries, companies like Google and Facebook. As the Internet takes on an even greater role in the politics of both authoritarian and democratic states, the pressure to forget the context and start with what the Internet allows will only grow. In fact, as has become ob- Introduction xvii vious in too many contexts, it empowers the strong and disempowers the weak. It is impossible to place the Internet at the heart of the enterprise of democracy promotion without risking the success of that very enterprise. Currently, we start with a flawed set of assumptions (cyber-utopianism) and act on them using a flawed, even crippled, methodology (Internet-centrism). Pushed to the extreme, such logic is poised to have significant global consequences that may risk undermining the very project of promoting democracy. In a sense, giving in to cyber-utopianism and Internet-centrism is akin to agreeing to box blindfolded. Sure, every now and then we may still strike some powerful blows against our authoritarian adversaries, but in general this is a poor strategy if we want to win. The struggle against authoritarianism is too important of a battle to fight with a voluntary intellectual handicap, even if that handicap allows us to play with the latest fancy gadgets. Tensions ran high, and some protesters, in an unthinkable offense, called for the resignation of Ayatollah Khamenei. But many Iranians found the elections to be fair; they were willing to defend the incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad if needed.

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She is recorded as starving herself bladder spasms 5 year old generic 10mg lioresal otc, bingeing spasms define purchase 25 mg lioresal overnight delivery, using a reed to muscle relaxant xanax generic lioresal 10mg on-line induce vomiting, and employing herbs to purge herself. Low self-esteem, perfectionism and undue compliance are said to be common premorbid characteristics. Up to three-quarters of cases report engaging in excessive exercise before starting to diet. Elevated hepatic enzymes due to fatty degeneration of the liver may be found during starvation and refeeding. No intervention is required1938 because the findings normalise with recovery of the primary disorder. Body image (perceived body size divided by actual body size: Wade ea, 2003) is distorted: they think they are fatter than they really are. Precedes obvious weight loss in 20% of cases; some authors feel that it is not an essential feature of the disorder. Healthy male volunteers deprived of food become preoccupied with food, do not feel satiated after feeding, and will cook for others and enjoy watching them eat! However, a reduction in bone mass occurs even with brief illness and recovery may not be complete. Stress fractures from excessive exercise (running and jumping) are another complication. Functional imaging show increased metabolism in the caudate nucleus before weight restoration. Cognition People with eating disorders appear to have problems with global processing of information. An example of overgeneralization includes the belief that the slightest use of carbohydrates would cause obesity. All-or-nothing reasoning includes the idea that the slightest weight gain will snowball toward obesity. In magical thinking a sweet is considered to be automatically and instantly converted to fat. Expressed emotion in the family, if excessive, should be the subject of intervention. The reasons why patients are admitted more or less readily in different jurisdictions may be more to do with financial and litigation considerations than any scientifico-medical thinking. Re-feeding syndrome 1946 Set-shifting, an important executive function, is the ability to move back and forth between many tasks, operations, or mental sets. It may show as inflexible thinking (concrete, rigid, stimulus-bound) or responding (perseverative or stereotyped). However, operant approaches have been criticised as being coercive and are now less popular. Patients may secrete food on their person or elsewhere, or carry weights to weigh down the scales. Drugs (trimipramine, chlorpromazine1952, cyproheptadine [Periactin1953], and insulin) were commonly used in the past but were generally ineffective. As a general rule, drug treatments are best delayed until following weight restoration or at least until hepatic function and electrolyte balance are normalised. The predictors for death were lowest reported weight and repeated hospital admissions. Suicide seems to be more common among bingeing/purging patients than among restricting types. Predictors of poor outcome were lowest weight, length of illness, older age at onset, and disturbed family relationships. Patients may be arrested for stealing food, clothes, laxatives1956, or other items. If oral feeding fails the nasogastric feeding may be necessary; feeding via gastrostomy or jujunostomy have been used rarely; and total parenteral nutrition tends to be avoided because of attendant complications. Possibilities might relate to a later age at puberty, testosterone, and a society that advocates fitness rather than thinness.

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Suddenly muscle relaxant vs analgesic discount lioresal 25 mg online, the Iranian authorities no longer saw the Internet as an engine of economic growth or as a way to spasms near liver buy cheap lioresal 25 mg spread the word of the prophet muscle relaxant for headache discount lioresal 10mg on line. Not surprisingly, once the protests quieted down, the Iranian authorities embarked on a digital purge of their opponents. In just a few months, the Iranian government formed a high-level twelve-member cybercrime team and tasked it with finding any false information-or, as they put it, "insults and lies"-on Iranian websites. The Iranian police began hunting the Internet for photos and videos that showed faces of the protesters-numerous, thanks to the ubiquity of social media-to publish them on Iranian news media websites and ask the public for help in identifying the individuals. In December 2009 the pro-Ahmadinejad Raja News website published a batch of thirtyeight photos with sixty-five faces circled in red and a batch of fortyseven photos with about a hundred faces circled in red. According to the Iranian police, public tip-offs helped to identify and arrest at least forty people. If people had believed that the footage was genuine, it could have created a major split in the opposition, alienating vast swathes of the Iranian population. The police or someone acting on their behalf also went searching for personal details-mostly Facebook profiles and email addresses- of Iranians living abroad, sending them threatening messages and urging them not to support the Green Movement unless they wanted to the Google Doctrine 11 hurt their relatives back in Iran. In the meantime, the authorities were equally tough on Iranians in the country, warning them to stay away from social networking sites used by the opposition. Ismail Ahmadi Moghaddam warned that those who incited others to protest or issued appeals "have committed a worse crime than those who come to the streets. They turned to text messaging-on a rather massive scale-to warn Iranians to stay away from street protests in the future. One such message, sent by the intelligence ministry, was anything but friendly: "Dear citizen, according to received information, you have been influenced by the destabilizing propaganda which the media affiliated with foreign countries have been disseminating. In case of any illegal action and contact with the foreign media, you will be charged as a criminal consistent with the Islamic Punishment Act and dealt with by the Judiciary. State Department of trying to foment a revolution via the Internet by helping Twitter stay online, stressing its "effective role in the continuation of riots. State Department, which interfered in the internal activities of Twitter, a trendy Internet service. This was globalization at its worst: A simple email based on the premise that Twitter mattered in Iran, sent by an American diplomat in Washington to an American company in San Francisco, triggered a worldwide Internet panic and politicized all online activity, painting it in bright revolutionary colors and threatening to tighten online spaces and opportunities that were previously unregulated. Instead of finding ways to establish long-term relationships with Iranian bloggers and use their work to quietly push for social, cultural, and-at some distant point in the future-maybe even political change, the American foreign policy establishment went on the record and pronounced them to be more dangerous than Lenin and Che Guevara combined. As a result, many of these "dangerous revolutionaries" were jailed, many more were put under secret surveillance, and those poor Iranian activists who happened to be attending Internet trainings funded by the U. State Department during the election could not return home and had to apply for asylum. Those were, however, extremely ambiguous, and they often strengthened rather than undermined the authoritarian rule. A Revolution in Search of Revolutionaries Of course, American diplomats had no idea how the Iranian protests would turn out; it would be unfair to blame them for the apparent inability of the Green Movement to unseat Ahmadinejad. When the future of Iranian democracy depended on the benevolence of a Silicon Valley start-up that seemed oblivious to the geopolitical problems besetting the world, what other choice did they have but to intervene? All of this is true-as long as there is evidence to assert that the situation was, indeed, dramatic. Should it prove lacking or inconclusive, American diplomats deserve more than a mere spanking. There is absolutely no excuse for giving the air of intervening into internal affairs of either private companies or foreign governments while, in reality, Western policymakers are simply standing in the corner, daydreaming about democracy and babbling their wildest fantasies into an open mic. In most cases, such "interventions" right no wrongs; instead they usually create quite a few wrongs of their own, producing unnecessary risks for those who were naпve enough to think of the U. State Department could only be justified on the condition that Twitter was, indeed, playing a crucial role in the Iranian unrest and that the cause of Iranian democracy would be severely undermined had the site gone into maintenance mode for a few hours. The digital witch hunts put on by the Iranian government may have been targeting imaginary enemies, created in part by the worst excesses of Western media and the hubris of Western policymakers. First, the Google Doctrine 15 how many people inside Iran (as opposed to those outside) were tweeting about the protests?

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Van Riper Award for Excellence and Service this award recognizes a Chapter or Section for activities during the year that provide professional development to muscle relaxant overdose buy lioresal 10mg without a prescription members through planned activities kidney spasms no pain 25mg lioresal visa. This award honors an individual who has made significant contributions to spasms of the esophagus buy discount lioresal 10 mg on-line both the academic and practitioner communities of public administration. Grand Ballroom the award is given annually to recognize newsletters as a vital means of communication and service offered to Chapter and Section members. Presented at the Global Public Administration Plenary and International Assembly Sunday, March 10 10:00 a. Gaston Award for Excellence in Public Service Management International Public Administration Award this award is presented to a public manager for excellence in public service management, particularly in natural resource management or environmental protection. This award honors a distinguished international scholar or practitioner for contributions to public administration in other nations. Stone Lecture Laverne Burchfield Award Presented to the author of the best book review in a 2018 volume of Public Administration Review. National Public Service Award these awards honor individuals whose outstanding contributions and accomplishments are models of public service within and outside the work environment. Mosher Award Chester Newland Award Presented to the author of the best Public Administration Review article written by an academic. Presented for the best commentary by a practitioner in Public Administration Review. This award honors an individual who has made outstanding contributions to the professional literature of public administration over an extended career. Presented to departing members of the National Council whose terms end in March 2019. Henderson International Award Joseph Wholey Distinguished Scholarship Award this award recognizes outstanding scholarship on performance in public and nonprofit organizations. The recipient makes a significant contribution to advancing knowledge in a scholarly journal about the development, implementation, use and impact of performance measurement. Originally established in 2007, the award recognizes an honoree for demonstrated commitment to international public administration, in particular, or to international public service in general by a lifetime of public service; or to careers in international public administration and public service. True visionaries are not part of the herd and their solutions are not always popular. They stand out with their strong beliefs and hold steadfast to their guiding principles, even in the face of adversity. William Petak Award this award recognizes an outstanding paper in emergency and crisis management. Best Book Award this award recognizes an outstanding book published in the previous calendar year that examines issues of democracy and social justice. Winners are selected based upon the perceived impact of the article in developing the theoretical, empirical and applied literatures on ethical issues affecting society, especially those that introduce new discourse to the field. Submissions are peer reviewed and judged for their quality, methodology, importance and policy implications, as well as clarity in writing. Fred Riggs Award for Outstanding Researcher this award recognizes those who have made significant substantial and widely recognized contributions to the conceptual, theoretical or operational development of international, comparative or development administration. It is named in honor of Fred Riggs, a pioneer in these fields and a founder of the Section. Stone Practitioner Award this award recognizes significant contributions to the practice of intergovernmental relations and management over a substantial period of time. Stone Scholar Award this award recognizes significant contributions to the study of intergovernmental relations over a substantial period of time. Stellar Practitioner Award this award recognizes an individual who has made effective and compelling contributions to the practice of public law and administration that, over time, have impacted how public administrators implement public law. Jae Moon Underwood Distinguished Professor, Yonsei University Shui-Yan Tang Distinguished Professor, University of Southern California Kaifeng Yang Dean and Professor, School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China Vaiva Kalesnikaite Assistant Professor, the College at Brockport, the State University of New York Does E-Governance Mitigate Public Corruption? Evidence from a Cross-National Study Luis Luna-Reyes Associate Professor, University at Albany, the State University of New York Understanding Public Value Creation in the Delivery of Electronic Services Aroon P. Ramon Gil-Garcia Associate Professor and Research Director, University at Albany, the State University of New York Understanding Public Value Creation in the Delivery of Electronic Services Chao Guo Associate Professor, University of Pennsylvania One-Two Punch: Online and Offline Nonprofit Advocacy Koomin Kim Doctoral Student, Florida State University Testing Impacts of E-Government on Corruption: A Global Perspective M.

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