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A hypothesis allows a person to arthritis relief gloves buy discount celebrex 200mg on line make sense of unorganized arthritis in dogs best treatment order celebrex 100 mg line, separate observations and bits of information by placing them within a structured and coherent framework arthritis in feet after pregnancy cheap celebrex 200mg fast delivery. For example, a researcher may analyze the following information: There are several different methods for trying to quit smoking. Studies show that people who attend "quit smoking" clinics have a better chance of kicking the smoking habit. Fear tactics, such as describing health hazards, have been used successfully to motivate people to modify their behavior. The researcher asks: Can fear tactics, such as describing the health hazards of smoking, increase the number of smokers who sign up for "quit smoking" clinics? The researcher forms a hypothesis from this research question: Using fear tactics, such as describing the health hazards of smoking, increases the number of smokers who sign up for "quit smoking" clinics. People who bathe in warm water relax more quickly than people who bathe in cold water. Some mothers complain that they are unable to calm their babies in order to get them to sleep. Interpreting statistics helps us use data to support a generalization or conclusion. Learn the Skill There are three things to consider when interpreting statistics: nonrepresentative sample, correlation, and statistical significance. Average Breakfast Calories and Average Grades of 100 Sampled Students 12 10 Number of Students (of 100 sampled) 8 6 Breakfast Calories Consumed Over 450 300450 1. Suppose that a 150300 4 psychologist wants 0150 to test the fol2 lowing hypothesis: Teenagers who eat 0 large breakfasts have A B C D F high grades. Since it Grade Students Received is impossible to study all teenagers, Skills Figure 1 the researcher must pick a sample, or a relatively small population, of students that represents the population of students as a whole. When interpreting statistics, researchers must decide whether the data support a generalizanonrepresentative sample is a sample that tion or whether the data are due to chance. For example, if data show that students who eat large breakfasts have high grades, this would be a positive correlation. If the data show that students who eat large breakfasts have low grades, this would be a negative correlation. Apply the Skill Develop a survey for which you believe the data might show a correlation. Skills Handbook 621 Skills Handbook Psychology Skills Designing an Experiment An experiment is a series of carefully planned steps that test a hypothesis. Experiments allow the researcher to control the situation and narrow the possibilities as to what can influence the results. In designing experiments, researchers think in terms of variables, or factors and conditions that can change or vary. Researchers test the relationship between two factors by deliberately producing a change in one factor and observing the effect the change has on the other factor. An independent variable is the factor that researchers change or alter so they can observe its effects. The dependent variable is the one that changes in response to manipulation of the independent variable. The researcher should state the hypothesis in clear, concrete language to rule out any confusion or error in its meaning. You might include surveys or questionnaires, but in order to be an experiment, one variable must be manipulated. From the list created in Step 2, design an experiment to test one variable identified in Step 3. The experimental group is the group of participants who are exposed to the independent variable. For example, if your hypothesis was that hot temperatures cause aggression in humans, then you would expose the members of the experimental group to hot temperatures and observe their reactions. Members of the control group are treated the same as the members of the experimental group in every way except they are not exposed to the independent variable (in this case hot temperatures).
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And we had-we would-once the trial started arthritis diet rheumatoid order celebrex 100mg without prescription, then the dynamic of the town became rheumatoid arthritis joint stiffness buy discount celebrex 200mg line, was pulled into the courtroom-became a part of the testimony arthritis knee grade 3 buy cheap celebrex 100 mg on-line. Swayed by the words of locals, Bragg was beginning to discard the "boyfriend motive. In fact, after two "arduous" days of jury selection, only five jurors had been seated. Bragg argued that "it was increasingly clear that it would be difficult to find 12 people in this close-knit community who will send a woman to die in the electric chair. By the third day of jury selection, Bragg reported that "over half" of the potential jury pool said "either that they could not put anyone to death or that they would have a hard time living with it if they did" (Bragg, "Smith Trials Stalls on Questions about Book Deal," New York Times, July 14, 1995). His experiences living amongst the people of Union helped to dictate this change in his coverage. A decade later, Bragg tried to explain the fundamental changes in his tone: "I had to weigh [each side], and the stories were filled with quotes from her defense lawyers. In January of 1995, Bragg explored the question of why Susan Smith faced capital punishment and O. He explained that attorneys are guided by the "mirror theory," in which the relationship between the defendant and his or her community made all the difference. Simpson and Susan Smith: Two Crimes, Two Punishments," New York Times, January 22,1995. Although he never fully relinquished his initial belief in the "boyfriend motive," in some ways, Bragg, by virtue of his own Southernness and his parking-lot interviews, served as something of a mirror, and a mouthpiece, for the community. The jury had been selected, and it was finally time for the courtroom drama and renewed sensational media coverage. In the article, Bragg quoted a pro-death penalty law professor who thought seeking it in the Smith case was foolish. Bragg reported that Findlay did not believe that Smith would kill her children to be with him. The initial "two Susans" of his accounts shifted from the mask motif- the evil mother playing the role of the good daughter, wife, and mother-to a different kind of 633 634 635 636 637 Bragg, "Father Testifies. Thus, the image of the mentally ill mother subtly crept into and altered his tone, although Bragg clearly never believed that the murders had actually been a thwarted suicide attempt. He portrayed the small community that raised Susan Smith as typically Southern in his accounts, but Smith had become less representative of the class dynamics of the region and more a picture of a mentally unstable young girl, an image that much of the town embraced, as we will see in the next chapter. Bragg focused on class, but he also began to focus on the various father figures of the case, especially Beverly Russell and Sheriff Howard Wells. By the end of July, the jurors had agreed upon the sentence of life in prison and trudged wearily home to front yards filled with reporters. For their last segments on the trial, television reporters recycled the well-worn details of the small-town faзade and its "down-home dirty laundry. He detailed the collective sigh of relief in the small community that had graciously hosted hundreds of voracious journalists during the hottest weeks of the Southern summer. Others streamed in and out of Wal-Mart, the unofficial gathering place for people of all colors, or wet their fishing lines in John D. Long Lake, the scene of the crime, where a permanent stone monument to the children is planned. David Smith reportedly received a $27,000 advance for Beyond All Reason: My Life with Susan Smith (Ibid). He "held her and prayed with her," and then he "tricked her with a small lie of his own. Wells says he has no doubt that he and other investigators walked a tightrope with Mrs. For nine days she lived in a hell of her own making, surrounded by weeping, doting relatives she had betrayed in the worst way. So although he was her hunter, he also became the person she could lean on, rely on, trust. Throughout the investigation and the trial, Wells was protective of Susan Smith, often shielding her from the waiting media cameras with his own jacket. You have a person who had confessed, who is willing to plead guilty, so why go through with it?
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Although I am going through a rough time myself and I am actively seeking to arthritis in back of neck symptoms order celebrex 100mg amex cope arthritis research back exercises cheap celebrex 200mg with mastercard, I am trying my best to arthritis in elderly dogs celebrex 200 mg with amex prevent that something so barbaric happens to other people, especially young ones. Comment 61: Please stop the physical "conversion" of these mentally distressed children. Comment 62: As a former resident of Winooski, Johnson, and Jeffersonville, I applaud and support this rule, and look forward to the continued progression of Human Rights in Vermont. Comment 66: Children who are gender dysphoric usually change their mind after going through puberty. She had a normal, healthy, and happy childhood and choose more "girly" things to do than traditionally boyish things. She was shy and awkward and hated her looks - her larger than typical chest at such a young age - and after going online slowly became convinced she was transgender. The parents never said she was wrong and said maybe she was right but that she needed to take a long time to think about such a big decision and look at all the possible explanations for her beliefs. She had social anxiety and is almost 4 years older now and extremely happy and gender dysphoria has never entered her mind since she started allowing herself to question and desisted. Puberty blockers have unknown long-term and possibly damaging neurological effects; they reduce bone growth. Cross sex hormones cause vaginal atrophy and require hysterectomy in 5 years and have cardiac effects. There is no long-term evidence that these medical treatments improve suicide risk. At the very least, wait until scientists can reliably predict which kids will desist (most will) and which kids will remain gender dysphoric. How can it be when doctors only wait 612 months and all the while never have them truly question, truly evaluate other explanations as a better reason for their gender dysphoria? This has been followed closely by a very large rise is people detransitioning (starting 2-3 years ago). This is clearly a discriminatory regulation, which will hit natal females (who detransition at a much higher rate than natal males) the hardest. Science tells us we are born male or female and that this sex in which we are born is immutable. Gender dysphoria can only be a mental condition, albeit one that is sold to young people in the throes of growing up as the obvious thing that is wrong with them. Imagine having any psychological condition where your mental condition is affirmed and encouraged. I do not support medicating children with unfounded remedies for gender dysphoria. Comment 71: this law is a compilation of euphemisms and reversals of fact pushed by the transactivist community, one that brooks no discussion with anyone not agreeing with its every supposition. It elevates the idea of gender identity as more important than sex and lies that sex is assigned at birth. Trans activists, having declared biology transphobic, subscribe to the idea that people are born with innate gender identities that override their actual sex. Having raised the age of smoking to 21 to protect youth, it is ironic that a medical experiment on children could go forward based on political ideology not science. Comment 72: I must warn you of the immense psychic harm as well as physical mutilation you will be responsible for if you pass this action re: no age limit for transgender surgery. I can envision droves of young people suing Vermont for this maleficent legislation in the years to come. Comment 73: When the first of my trans friends detransitioned and was exiled from her/our community for sharing her experience of hormones and trans identity increasing her dysphoria and self hatred and the origins of it being born of disassociation and a desire to not be treated like a woman, I rethought my blind allyship of the medicalization of transness. Girls like these need feminism which tells them they can be whomever they are without fitting into boxes. The more common this becomes, the less common gender divergence will be and the more women will be cutting off their functional organs and becoming codependent on hormonal treatments for life, whether or not they detransition. Please learn about trauma and other underlying mental illnesses that need to be treated here.
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Sometimes the guards subjected the prisoners to arthritis in lower back sciatica order celebrex 100 mg free shipping emSome cultures arthritis pain upper back order celebrex 100mg line, such as the Mexican culture arthritis shoes buy 100mg celebrex fast delivery, place greater barrassment, humiliation, and emphasis on the group rather than the individual. Individuals are mindless tasks such as push-ups viewed as part of the family and society and must work hard to and washing toilets with their maintain harmonious relationships with others. At the same time, the prisoners began showing signs of extreme stress, often acting subdued and depressed. They yelled back at the guards, made negative comments about the jail, and later became passive from defeat. Some of the prisoners became angry and disillusioned, while others developed psychological Chapter 19 / Group Interaction 561 Figure 19. They identify and kill their enemies simply by targeting a blip on a radar screen. Why might it be easier to obey if you are shielded from the consequences of your actions? The emotional reactions were so extreme that experimenters ended the planned two-week experiment after only six days. It seems that the prison environment was much stronger than individual personalities. Although the participants in this experiment were emotionally mature and stable (according to tests administered before the experiment), the roles these individuals adopted changed the way they acted. There may be other situations in everyday life that cause us and those around us to act in ways we do not expect. Some of the participants had difficulty understanding how powerful the experiment had become. The experiment not only changed the ethical standards of experimentation in psychology but it also demonstrated the power that situations can have in changing how we feel, think, and behave. The social situation of being in the prison changed the rules, roles, and expectations of the students (Zimbardo, 1975). However, we are more likely to follow these rules when the authority figure is actually present. Visualize the Main Idea Duplicate and complete the chart below, describing the Asch experiment. Think Critically Do you think that conforming to a group is always a negative thing to do? Confident and eager about his mission, Rockwood strongly advocated human rights for people all over the world. Rockwood did not know, however, that his mission would clash intensely with his morals. Hypothesis: Similar to the studies conducted by Asch and Milgram, the hypothesis was that when faced with pressure to conform, an individual would conform to the group or an authority. Knowing his military career would be put on the line by way of courtmartial, Rockwood disobeyed direct orders, climbed the outer fence of his base, and proceeded to a Haitian prison where he demanded to evaluate each prisoner. Four hours later, a United States major arrived at the prison and ordered Rockwood to leave. Commanders ordered Captain Rockwood to survey local Haitian prisons and report on the conditions there. Analyzing the Case Study Rockwood discovered that one of the prisons had about 30 inmates housed in one 1. Does this case study support the findings of Milgram fined in a position so long that portions of and Asch? Critical Thinking Under what circumstances might Outraged at these conditions, Captain Rockwood have obeyed his orders? Do you think that Rockwood petitioned for special operations conformity depends upon the situation or the person? The officer recommended that Results: In 1995 the Army court-martialed Rockwood for his actions.
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In that case rheumatoid arthritis natural relief discount celebrex 200 mg visa, Wegman was insured by Admiral and Admiral had limits of one million dollars arthritis diet for dogs discount celebrex 100 mg otc. Wegman alleged that it only "realized" the potential for an excess judgment days before trial arthritis pain characteristics celebrex 200mg otc. At that time, Wegman tendered its defense to its excess carrier; however, the excess carrier denied the tender based on the lack of timely notice. Wegman then sued Admiral claiming that Admiral violated its duty of good faith by not notifying Wegman of the potential excess judgment. The appellate court overturned the dismissal of the complaint and held that the failure by Admiral to advise Wegman of the potential excess judgment could be a violation of its duty of good faith. In considering the appeal, the appellate court accepted all facts plead by Wegman as true and then found that those facts could state a cognizable cause of action. The Wegman court observed that Admiral knew of this danger after learning of the many serious injuries disclosed at the deposition of the plaintiff. When an insurer alerts the insured to a potential conflict, the insured has the option of hiring a different lawyer-one whose loyalty will be exclusively to the insured. He has practiced in the area of tort litigation for over 10 years and concentrates his practice in the defense of personal injury, construction, fire and explosion and premises liability suits. SecondQuarter2011 exercises that option, the insurance company will be obligated to reimburse the reasonable expense of the new lawyer. The Wegmancourt observed that Admiral knew of this danger after learning of the many serious injuries disclosed at the deposition of the plaintiff. The Wegman case does not address whether the insured was told at any time, or should have itself discovered, the potential for an excess judgment. The insured in Wegman simply made the self-serving assertion that they only "realized" of the potential for an excess judgment a few days before trial. When Admiral argued that defense counsel had the responsibility to notify Wegman of the potential excess judgment, the court did not agree or disagree and simply stated that the insurer is obligated to notify the insured of the conflict. The Wegman opinion appears to expand the obligations of an insurance company beyond those traditionally recognized. One concern here is that the potential for an excess judgment in Wegman was only assessed after the judgment had actually been entered. Retroactive review of excess judgments might all too often yield a time in which the insurer "should have known" of the potential for an excess verdict. The Wegman court simply held that, if proved, the allegations could support liability against Admiral. People voluntarily place a vast amount of personal information on sites like Facebook ( Further, subscribers to these sites openly share thoughts, activities, travels, and other various information about them. With information like this readily available, it is not surprising that social network (Continuedonnextpage) the Wegman decision underscores the value of encouraging clients to identify available excess and umbrella coverage and to notify the relevant insurance carriers of potential liability which may reach their coverage layer. Christine concentrates her practice on personal, commercial, and professional lines of insurance, as well as extra-contractual/bad faith claims. Christine has handled coverage matters in the areas of automobile liability, uninsured/underinsured motorists, homeowners, business liability, medical malpractice, construction, environmental, and toxic tort. She has represented the interests of insurance companies, their employees, and independent insurance agents. Additionally, Christine provides counsel to clients with respect to contractual indemnification issues and has represented the interests of parties in both seeking and contesting indemnification from others. The Wegman decision underscores the value of encouraging clients to identify available excess and umbrella coverage and to notify the relevant insurance carriers of potential liability which may reach their coverage layer. Some examples of the impact of social network sites on insurance coverage disputes, as well as how courts are dealing with discovery requests concerning these sites, and practical ways to address social networking in litigation, will be explored in this article. The effect of social network sites on insurance coverage litigation can be demonstrated in two recent events.
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They might be able to gouty arthritis medication treatment cheap 100mg celebrex amex modify the activity or exercise to arthritis in back at 30 years old generic 100 mg celebrex visa slowly get you prepared to arthritis hip pain exercises generic celebrex 100mg fast delivery tolerate it or you might find ways to start doing these things again with your new found knowledge. On this page write down how much you think you could do now/or what you have done in the past week and then write what you would like to be doing in 3 months time in the right column. Go out for coffee with my spouse 2/week List your daily or weekly accomplisments Print and re-use this page as needed. Usually, with these types of physical contributors a part of treatment is physical treatment. This would be in addition to addressing anything else that might be contributing to your sensitivity. Remember, there can be a physical component to your pain but that can get amplified by other factors in your life. Try addressing everything, or the things most important to you or the things that might be most relevant. Have you or your therapist identified that you keep doing the same thing that bothers you and you found new ways to move (new movement strategies) that helped with your pain? Physical activity can be almost anything you like to do provided you are physical working a little more than you normally work. Going for walks in the forest, working in your garden or playing with your kids all count as physical activity. Just getting your heart rate up a little bit can give some people some mild pain relief. In others, a little bit of strength training can help pain improve in the long term. When you combine physical activity with learning about pain, changing your habits, resuming meaningful activities and changing your beliefs they can all add up to helping you get your life back and get out of pain. Physical activity can even decrease the sensitizing chemicals that are involved in some osteoarthritis. Get cleared by your doctor or health care provider that you are medically safe to start activity. Working with your therapist choose an amount of an activity that you think you can do today without harming yourself or without a flare up. You can use the Weekly Activity Goal sheet to start and track your progress Tips and Options 1. We have already established that pain is normal, pain is weird and pain is influenced by a number of factors. For example, if you exercise regularly its not unusual for your ankles or knees to feel stiff and painful in the morning. Rather than expecting that pain should be forever abolished we could focus on what we can do that makes us healthy and happy. Early in this section on Recovery Strategies we outlined a simple goal setting approach to doing meaningful activities again. It can still decrease but instead the focus is on what you can do and what you want to do. You might be avoiding the movements that you find painful, fearful or uncomfortable. This is sometimes the appropriate thing to do but after awhile not moving in those ways can make you more sensitive and more fearful. Sometimes, you need to confront those sensitive movement patterns to habituate to them and turn down your alarm. Find a movement that you find sensitive, perhaps slightly fearful of and something that you want to do. For example, if standing back flexion hurts then start to do this lying down on your back or stomach iii. A success here can be moving with pain but not having a large Flare up the next day **try not to get caught up in moving in the "correct" way.
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Structured Interview Interview techniques that involve highly specific questions and often scoring procedures arthritis flare up buy discount celebrex 100mg on-line. Summarization Interviewing technique that involves both paraphrasing and reflection in attempting to arthritis neck medication discount celebrex 100mg free shipping pull together several points into a coherent brief review of the message arthritis in the knee and yoga generic 100mg celebrex free shipping. Superego Represents the internalization of familial, cultural, and societal norms and mores. Teaching Clinical psychology activity involving dispensing information to others and engaging them in learning. Testing A potential threat to both internal and external validity of a research study. As a threat to internal validity, testing concerns the influence of the testing or evaluation process itself on research results, such as in the use of repeated measures obtained on the same subjects over time. Research Program A series of experiments or research studies that attempt to answer questions one step at a time. Scholar-Practitioner Model Graduate training model that focuses on training practitioners who are consumers of research but are likely not to conduct research-also known as the Vail model. School Psychologists Professionals who use knowledge about human behavior and apply that knowledge in a school setting. Scientist-Practitioner Model Graduate training model that focuses on a balance between research and practice-also known as the Boulder model. Seizures Intense muscle spasms, a complete or partial loss of consciousness, and sometimes unconscious purposeful behavior. Selection Bias Threat to validity of a study and refers to a differential and problematic selection procedure for choosing research subjects. Self-Actualization Humanistic term that refers to the forward movement in life toward greater growth, peace, and acceptance of self and others. Self-Efficacy Cognitive term that refers to the belief that one can accomplish a goal. Self-Monitoring Behavioral technique that includes maintaining a diary or log where one can record problematic behaviors as well as other important information such as feelings and thoughts associated with each behavioral occurrence. Sentence Completion Projective assessment where subjects are asked to complete an incomplete sentence with the first thing that comes to their mind. Social Learning Cognitive-behavioral approach that suggests that behavior is learned by modeling others. Theoretical Orientation Philosophical perspectives used to approach assessment, treatment, consultation, and research. Thought Stopping Cognitive technique to eliminate problematic and maladaptive thoughts. Threats to External Validity Factors that decrease the generalizability of a research study. Threats to Internal Validity Factors that decrease the experimental control and precision of a research study. Trainer Consultation role that assumes that the consultant has specialized information that is useful to the client and can be acquired through education. Treatment Clinical psychology activity involving intervention strategies to help others improve their lives. Treatment Outcome Research Strategy Approaches Various research methods to determine if and how treatment works. Unconditional Positive Regard Humanistic term for allowing a client to discuss his or her concerns without judgment. Vail Model Graduate training model that suggests that clinical psychologists are generally practitioners and consumers of research-also referred to as the scholar-practitioner model. Veterans Administration Government agency that manages numerous hospitals and clinics throughout the United States to assess and treat veterans. Wechsler Scales A series of intellectual assessments for children and adults that are individually administered. Within Group Research approach that examines research effects within the same group of subjects. Working Through Psychodynamic term that refers to assimilating and incorporating new insights into daily life. The Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code.
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Prepare all participants prior to arthritis pain glucosamine generic 200mg celebrex otc the first visit arthritis relief cream with celadrin generic 200 mg celebrex mastercard, by discussing any emotions they feel in anticipation of scheduled visits enteropathic arthritis diet purchase 200 mg celebrex amex. Set behavioral expectations for clients, specifying exactly what appropriate and inappropriate behavior is during visits. Help clients communicate and process their emotions regarding issues of separation, changes in custody or reunification. In Florida, an estimated 51,920 children were victims of child abuse or neglect in 2010. Child Abuse Reporting Another factor in safety at visits is prohibiting child abuse. In order to ensure safety, visit monitors must have an understanding of child abuse and how to report when cases may arise. Supervised visitation programs have exceptions to their confidentiality policies for child abuse and neglect. Note To learn more about the types, prevalence, and risk factors of child abuse, keep reading this manual! Chapter 11 of this manual addresses the impact of child physical and sexual abuse on supervised visitation. You must report when you have reasonable cause to believe that a child or adolescent has been abused or neglected or is in danger of being abused. In Florida, the reporting requirement is not limited to the first person reporting. However, the Clearinghouse recommends that programs provide their full name and the names of staff. It is essential that you keep this in mind while communicating and interacting with children at visits. Children may experience trauma due to: the death of a parent, friend, or pet Physical, sexual, or verbal abuse Neglect or maltreatment An unstable or unsafe environment Bullying Surviving a natural disaster (fire, hurricane, etc. These can include ethnic or cultural differences, mental or physical disabilities, or language barriers. In the absence of safety, the child will be unable and often unwilling to alter behavior, consider new ideas, or accept help. Children concerned about their survival cannot broaden their focus, engage in self-reflection, or allow themselves to be emotionally vulnerable. In cases where the abuse has been confirmed, as well as in cases where there is "some indication" of child abuse, the child should be allowed to signal when the visit needs to end or break for a period of time. This is a perfect time to remind children of the safety signal you chose together during your initial safety planning. If the child leaves the visit for a break or asks that the visit be terminated, staff should conduct a risk assessment to determine how the child is being affected by the contact. It may be confusing for a child victim if staff remains silent about what happened or may have happened to the child. On the other hand, a program must not begin advocating for one parent, or treating a parent with disdain or contempt. Supervised visitation staff do not need to be specific about the allegations with a child. Make sure to give the child assurances that let the child know that staff will be vigilant, such as: "You are here because the judge cares about you. If a child starts to become upset or overly withdrawn, stop the visit and talk with them one-on-one to make sure everything is okay before moving forward with the visit. Make a note of any child behaviors or statements that may indicate past trauma in your case notes, and make sure to address these concerns in your safety plan. Each visitation program has policies and procedures describing when a visit monitor should intervene in a visit. Below are some common situations in which monitors may need to intervene: the visiting parent questions the children in detail about the activities of the custodial parent. The visiting parents tells the children to convey a message to the custodial parent. The visiting parent falsely tells the children that he or she will be back soon- unless reunification really is imminent. The visiting parent asks the children to choose which parent they want to live with. The visiting parent promises trips, gifts, or privileges on the condition that the child does something.