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Nature refers to spasms 1983 wikipedia cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml mastercard the characteristics that a person inherits-his or her biological makeup muscle relaxant reversals 60 ml rumalaya liniment overnight delivery. Nurture refers to muscle relaxant drugs buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml on-line environmental factors, such as family, culture, education, and individual experiences. Sir Francis Galton became one of the first to preach the importance of nature in the modern era. In 1869 he published Hereditary Genius, a book in which he analyzed the families of over 1,000 eminent politicians, religious leaders, artists, and scholars. All the effects that genes have on behavior occur through their role in building and modifying the physical structures of the body. For example, if your parents are musicians, you may have inherited a gene that influences your musical ability by contributing to brain development that analyzes sounds well. Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg (thus, they are called monozygotic) and share the same genes. Twins growing up in the same house share the same general environment, but identical twins also share the same genes. So, if identical twins who grow up together prove to be more alike on a specific trait than fraternal twins do, it probably means that genes are important for that trait. Psychologists at the University of Minnesota have been studying identical twins who were separated at birth and reared in different environments (Holden, 1980). One of the researchers, Thomas Bouchard, reports that despite very different social, cultural, and economic backgrounds, the twins shared many common behaviors. For example, in one set of twins (both named Jim), both had done well in math and poorly in spelling while in school, both worked as deputy sheriffs, vacationed in Florida, gave identical names to their children and pets, bit their fingernails, had identical smoking and drinking patterns, and liked mechanical drawing and carpentry. These similarities and others suggest that heredity may contribute to behaviors that we normally associate with experience. Many researchers now believe that many of the differences among people can be explained by considering heredity as well as experience. Contrary to popular belief, the influence of genes on behavior does not mean that nothing can be done to change the behavior. Although it is true that it is difficult and may be undesirable to change the genetic code that may direct behavior, it is possible to alter the environment in which the genes operate. Review the Vocabulary Explain the difference between fraternal twins and identical twins. Visualize the Main Idea In a diagram like the one below, explain how proponents of each view argue the naturenurture debate. The nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Nerve cells called neurons have three basic parts: the cell body, dendrites, and the axon. Studying the Brain Main Idea: There are many parts in the human brain that work together to coordinate movement and stimulate thinking and emotions, resulting in behavior. The cortex of the brain is divided into the left and the right hemispheres; the left hemisphere controls the movements of the right side of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the movements of the left side of the body. Psychologists use recording, stimulation, lesions, and imaging to study the brain. The Endocrine System Main Idea: the endocrine system controls and excites growth and affects emotions and behavior in people. The endocrine system, in addition to the nervous system, is a communication system for sending information to and from the brain. Heredity and Environment Main Idea: Heredity is the transmission of characteristics from parents to children. Genes are the basic units of heredity; they are reproduced and passed along from parents to child. Using a chart similar to the one below, describe the main function of each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex. Lobe Main Function Occipital Parietal Temporal Frontal Reviewing Vocabulary Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. One way to find out whether a trait is inherited is to compare the behavior of identical and fraternal twins. The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary activities is the. As a neuron transmits its message to another neuron across the synapse, it releases chemicals called.
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It was a South that got little national press spasms under sternum rumalaya liniment 60 ml lowest price, but was well known to muscle relaxant indications buy cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml on line academics and its own inhabitants muscle relaxant used in surgery discount 60 ml rumalaya liniment amex. The construction of the textile mills had an enormous effect on the agricultural South: they were the "prodigal son of Southern culture," the "bedrock" of the New South economy, "the opening wedge of industrialization" that drew people from the land and spawned mill-based villages virtually overnight. The construction of the textile mills marked the end of the agricultural era and inaugurated an "industrialagricultural era," as well as a pronounced rural-urban split, within a few short years. The Union Mill, in downtown Union, was the first to go into production, followed closely by the nearby Lockhart mill. In 1896, Union Mill Number Two opened its doors, billing itself as the "largest in the Press, 1979), 10; Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, James Leloudis, Robert Korstad, Mary Murphy, Lu Ann Jones, and Christopher B. Prior to the mills, there were a few small industries in Union County that employed "less than a dozen people each. The Union Mill featured a large tower clock around which the mill workers, who lived in the identical houses dotting the "mill hill" downtown, arranged their lives, while the Lockhart, Buffalo, and Monarch mills spawned their own villages of workers. The rapid industrialization had a snowball effect, resulting in the construction of railroads, especially between mills, and attracting other industries such as knitting mills. Union County had the secondhighest population growth rate in the state in the 1890s, and almost all of the people streaming into town went to work for the mills. The influx of white farm laborers reversed the racial demographics of the county by 1920, which had had a black majority since the mid-nineteenth century. White capitalists profited from the mills, and white laborers from the rural areas of the South toiled in them. Indeed, scholars "discovered" mill culture at mid-century, sparking an academic debate about mill owner control and worker agency in the intimate context of mill villages. Although some mills hired African Americans, generally speaking, textiles were a "white domain," and the worst work in the mills went to black men (Hall et al, 66). A large part of the community play "Turn the Washpot Down," which was based on oral history and written and performed by locals at the end of the twentieth century, featured the integration of the textile mills (Jules Corriere, "Turn the Washpot Down," Community Performance, Inc. They found that although the villages were "marked by sharp inequalities in power," there was a high degree of worker agency that culminated in the waves of strikes in the late 1910s and early 1930s (Hall et al, xxiii). In a more recent work, Waldrep argues for a kind of worker agency with constraints: "True autonomy is a historical and social phantom. Very little in daily life is truly autonomous We relate to friends and loved ones, neighbors and enemies, employers, employees, and government through a nest of contingencies and constraints. All aspiration emerges from structures of confinement and constraint but never entirely leaves the enclosure of contingency. Even under the most favorable circumstances, men and women never achieve the pristine state that autonomy presents" (Waldrep, 5-6). One anthropologist argued in the 1950s that the culture of mill workers was even more "encapsulated" than those of African Americans in the Jim Crow South because the latter had more interaction with the regional white elites. In the words of historian Bryant Simon, "most mill people saw themselves not as farmers who temporarily lost their way, but as millhands, members of the largest occupational group of the southern working class. Cash described mill workers in great detail: "By 1900, the cotton-mill worker was a pretty distinct physical type in the South; a type in some respects inferior to even that of the old poor-white, which in general had been his to begin with. A dead-white skin, a sunken chest, and stooping shoulders were the earmarks of the breed. Chinless faces, microcephalic foreheads, rabbit teeth, goggling dead-fish eyes, rickety limbs, and stunted bodies abounded-over and beyond the limit of their prevalence in the countryside. The women were characteristically stringy-haired and limp of breast at twenty, and shrunken hags at thirty or forty" (Cash, 204. Journalist Mimi Conway similarly argued, "the mill villages, like the plantations of the Old South, were worlds unto themselves" (Conway, 15). Morland and his field researchers found that townspeople generally found mill workers to be "improvident, unambitious, poorly educated, unclean, and on a lower moral level" (174). Mill workers were also seen as more conservatively Christian, more evangelical, and more inclined to interpret the Bible literally, a characteristic discussed more in the next chapter (Morland, 131; Hall et al, 175). The strikes of the 1920s featured a new image of the mill worker as violent, resulting in calls for reform to rescue the region from this "troubling social type" (Hall et al, 229). Morland found in his fieldwork that the representative mill town was an "aristocratic" one that "gloried in its past" and relegated mill workers to the lowest rungs of society (although the bottom of the ladder was always reserved for the majority of African Americans in the segregated South).
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The court did spasms constipation order 60 ml rumalaya liniment overnight delivery, however spasms vulva purchase 60 ml rumalaya liniment with visa, leave open the possibility that such information could be discoverable at a future date with proper reasoning spasms right upper abdomen rumalaya liniment 60 ml cheap. In a matter of first impression, a California District Court also recently ruled that Facebook and MySpace messages that are not publicly available are protected information under the Stored Communications Act (18 U. The defendant sought all communications, including those on various social network sites, between the plaintiff and a tattoo artist that defendant alleged would be relevant in determining the nature and terms of the agreement. The court refused access to any private messages on the social network sites and remanded the matter for further development as to Facebook "wall postings" and MySpace "comments. Therefore, social network sites are one more tool that attorneys and claims professionals can use in evaluating insurance claims. Attorneys and claims professionals alike should keep social network sites in the back of their minds throughout coverage disputes. When a claim is first made, search social networks sites to determine if a claimant, witnesses, etc. If such information is protected by privacy settings, consider asking a claimant whether he or she made any comments about an incident, loss, or injury on a social media site. This can be done in either interrogatories or at deposition, but will likely raise an objection. Therefore, develop reasons why information on these sites may be relevant to a particular claim. It can be argued that if a person has an active social network site, he or she is very likely to have discussed an accident, injury, or lawsuit on the site. Consider whether the incident, loss, or injury is such that coverage could be affected by comments or photos on a social media site. If anything, the cases discussed above show that if you give the court solid reasoning as to why the information sought may be relevant, you have a good chance to succeed in compelling production of information from social network sites that may significantly affect the outcome of the case or settlement value. Chicago Determining the Trigger Date for the Statute of Limitations in an Accounting Malpractice Action All defense practitioners who represent accountants and attorneys know that one of the first things defense counsel must consider in every malpractice case is whether the complaint was timely filed. In so doing, Stuart found that errors had been made with respect to the cost basis that was used for calculating depreciation on different assets. Stuart believed that the error was carried through all of the tax returns prepared by Metro. He further advised at that time that it could take up to a year to properly investigate the issues and file amended tax returns. Ultimately, amended tax returns were filed for the plaintiffs in September and October 2004. The trial court agreed that the plaintiffs had failed to timely file their complaint, and dismissed the accounting malpractice claim with prejudice. On appeal, the plaintiffs asserted that the trial court erred in dismissing their complaint. The plaintiffs argued that under the discovery rule incorporated within Section 13-214. Based on a December 2004 commencement date, the plaintiffs argued that the filing of their complaint in September 2006, was timely under the statute. He is a member of the Illinois State Bar Association, the Chicago Bar Association, the Defense Research Institute, the Illinois Association of Defense Trial Counsel and the Society of Trial Lawyers. While in law school, he served on the John Marshall Law Review, and won a Graduate School Scholarship Award and the Dean Herzog Scholarship. In analyzing the issue, the court initially began by discussing the holding in FederatedIndustries,Inc. The court in FederatedIndustries held that "the statute of limitations in an accountant malpractice case involving increased tax liability begins to run when the taxpayer receives the statutory notice of deficiency. By that time Stuart had communicated his knowledge to the plaintiffs, and they had an obligation to inquire further into the claim. Alternatively, the court held that if the statute of limitations was not triggered in November 2003, it certainly was triggered in September 2004, when the first amended tax return was filed. The court found that it was "plainly obvious" by then that there was a tax overpayment. The court thus held that "the statute of limitations expired at the latest by September 11, 2006, but most likely by November 11, 2005.
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Rosenhan spasms while pregnant rumalaya liniment 60 ml overnight delivery, 2000 Personality disorders and drug addiction prohibit normal relationships and normal functioning spasms right arm quality rumalaya liniment 60 ml. Vocabulary personality disorders antisocial personality psychological dependence addiction tolerance withdrawal · · · · · · Objectives · Describe how personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders spasms 1983 wikipedia discount 60 ml rumalaya liniment with mastercard. This lack of constraint is a sign of a personality disorder, specifically an antisocial personality disorder. Psychologists consider these people to have a disorder because they seem unable to establish meaningful relationships with other people, to assume social responsibilities, or to adapt to their social environment. Intolerant of everyday frustrations and unable to save or plan or wait, they live for the moment. If they should injure other people along the way or break social rules, they do not seem to feel any shame or guilt. They win affection and confidence from antisocial personality: a personality disorder characterized by irresponsibility, shallow emotions, and lack of conscience Figure 16. What are the characteristics of an individual with a paranoid personality disorder? If caught, these individuals will either spin a fantastic lie or simply insist, with wide-eyed sincerity, that their intentions were utterly pure. Other theories point to lack of discipline or inconsistent discipline or other problems during childhood. Psychologists are still investigating the relationship between genes and antisocial behavior. Users come to depend so much on the feeling of well-being they obtain from the drug that they feel compelled to continue using it. If the drug is not in the body, the person experiences extreme physical discomfort as he would if he were deprived of oxygen or water. Just as dependence causes a psychological need for the drug, addiction causes a physical need. Furthermore, once a person is addicted to a drug, he develops tolerance; that is, his body becomes so accustomed to the drug that he has to keep increasing his dosage to obtain the high achieved with smaller doses. Withdrawal is a state of physical and psychological upset during which the body and the mind revolt against and finally get used to the absence of the drug. Researchers estimate that 80 percent of all high school seniors have consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetimes and that 50 percent of seniors have consumed it within the past month-down about 20 percent since the late 1970s. About 40 percent of the deaths in automobile accidents each year can be traced to alcohol, and in about 40 percent of all murders, either the killer or the victim had been drinking. The cost in human suffering to the alcoholic, as well as to her family, is impossible to measure. It is for this reason that many people consider alcohol a stimulant, when it is really a depressant. The person begins to stumble and weave, speech becomes slurred, About 100 million U. If enough alcohol accumulates in the body, it leads million Americans abuse alcohol. In the first stage, the individual discovers that alcohol reduces her tensions, gives her selfconfidence, and reduces social pressures. The individual begins to drink so heavily that she feels she has to hide her habit. She As a person consumes more becomes inefficient at work and tends to go on drinking sprees that and more alcohol, psychomay last for weeks. She is now an alcoholic, drinking continuously, logical and physiological eating infrequently, and feeling sick when deprived of her drug. Children of alcoholic parents may also be raised in an atmosphere of distrust, the party begins. The first step in treating the alcoholic is to help her through the 2 drinks later. Antabuse, or disulfiram, is a chemical that blocks the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Visualize the Main Idea Use an outline similar to the one below to list characteristics of an antisocial personality.
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Each response is carefully scored based on the content spasms kidney area buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml visa, location muscle relaxant walgreens discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml without prescription, determinants muscle relaxant tablets rumalaya liniment 60 ml without a prescription, and quality of the response. An actual scoring sheet, once completed, resembles a highly specialized and foreign language. Because the scoring process can be very complicated and may take a long time to complete, many experienced psychologists do not score the test in fine detail but rely on their clinical inference, experience, and judgment to answer clinical questions such as, Is the patient psychotic or not? Various aspects of the Rorschach responses are associated with psychological functioning. For example, the frequent use of shading is generally considered to be reflective of anxiety and depression. The use of human movement and adequate number of popular responses are usually associated with adaptive and well-integrated psychological functioning. Numerous responses that attend to minor details of the blots often reflect obsessivecompulsive traits. Frequent use of the white space around the blot is generally associated with oppositionality and/or avoidance. Exner has developed a method with highly precise scoring criteria and has used this method to demonstrate reliability and validity of the approach. Others question some of his assumptions regarding reliability and validity (Dawes, 1994; J. Others suggest that it is not appropriate to use with various ethnic minority groups (Dana, 2000). However, a review of Rorschach research revealed reliability coefficients to be in the. Weiner, 1996), suggesting that the Rorschach does maintain acceptable levels of reliability and validity (I. Ultimately, it may be reasonable to refer to the Rorschach and other projective instruments as tools as opposed to tests per se. Specifically, it was used to investigate goals, central conflicts, needs, press. After each card is presented to the patient, the psychologist writes down everything that is said verbatim. Some of the pictures are designed to be administered to males, some to females, and others to both genders (Figure 8. The psychologist introduces the test by telling the patient that he or she will be given a series of pictures and requested to tell a story about each. Copyright © 1943 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College, © 1971 by Henry A. Typically, people are asked to draw a house, a tree, a person, and their family doing something together. For the Draw-a-Person test (Machover, 1949), the House-Tree-Person Technique (Buck, 1948), and the Kinetic Family Drawing Technique, the patient is instructed to draw each picture in pencil on a separate blank piece of paper and to avoid the use of stick figures. Attempts to develop scoring criteria as well as research on the reliability and validity of these drawing techniques have been only moderately successful. Some researchers have been involved with developing scientific scoring procedures that maximize both reliability and validity and can be used as screening measures for cognitive and emotional impairment (Sopchak, Sopchak, & Kohlbrenner, 247 1993; Trevisaw, 1996). Many clinicians feel that these techniques are quick and easy methods to establish rapport with children or with those who have great difficulty expressing their feelings verbally. Unfortunately, some clinicians overinterpret projective drawings without adequate research support to justify their interpretations. The patient is presented (either orally by the examiner or in writing through a questionnaire) a series of sentence fragments. These might include items such as, "When he answered the phone he " or "Most mothers are. Thus, someone who tends to be friendly is likely to be friendly most of the time and in most circumstances. She also reported feeling stressed from too many job and home responsibilities as well as alcoholism among several family members. However, several researchers have demonstrated that personality is not as stable as many people assume but instead partially depends on specific environmental and situational circumstances (Mischel, 1968, 1973). For example, rather than thinking of someone as an anxious person, it is more useful to evaluate and understand the circumstances in which he or she is likely to show anxiety. Epstein, 1979; Magnusson, 1981) have advanced the person-situation interaction theory of personality.
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A muscle relaxant equipment discount 60 ml rumalaya liniment free shipping, B muscle relaxant shot for back pain generic rumalaya liniment 60 ml amex, and C may or may not engage in the traditional clinical psychology activities discussed earlier such as research muscle relaxant amazon order 60 ml rumalaya liniment with amex, psychological testing, or psychotherapy. Yet their professional roles and activities are typical of what many clinical psychologists do for a living. In addition to research, assessment, and psychotherapy, clinical psychologists often spend a significant amount of time involved Consultative, Teaching, and Administrative Roles in other professional activities. Consultation, teaching, and administration are three common professional services offered by clinical psychologists. Psychologists may both teach and consult in addition to conducting psychotherapy, psychological testing or research. Therefore, a high degree of overlap may exist among these professional activities. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the consultation, teaching, and administration activities of clinical psychologists. They study, research, and treat a wide range of problems and people who are distressed by problematic feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. This expertise can be used to help many individuals, families, groups, and institutions (Figure 12. Clinical psychologists are often asked to consult with others to assist in solving problems in diverse settings. Almost all clinical psychologists participate in some form of professional consultation. Five percent of clinical psychologists report that consultation is their primary professional activity (Norcross et al. Furthermore, the Clayton and Bongar (1994) review of consultation literature reported that consultation activities by psychologists significantly improve quality of care, client satisfaction, and treatment outcome. Consultation may be provided to other mental health professionals; to organizations, groups, and individuals; and to the general public. Consultation Defined Consultation in clinical psychology refers to the application of knowledge and theories of human behavior to specific questions and problems in various community settings such as hospitals, clinics, schools, businesses, and government agencies. Consultation usually involves the participation of a consultant with specialized knowledge and skill and a consultee or client who benefits from the expertise of the consultant. Unlike one-to-one psychotherapy, a consultant has the opportunity to assist large groups of people and entire organizations through his or her work with a consultee. Consultation might be thought of in terms of the popular phrase, "Two (or more) heads are better than one," especially where one possesses special expertise. Consultation has become more widely practiced in recent years, with consultation skills more commonly taught to clinical psychology students and professionals (D. In fact, a Consultation Roles Consultants may assume many different roles during the course of consultation or between consultation assignments. Lippitt and Lippitt (1986) suggested that the role of consultant is based on a continuum between being directive and being indirective. Consultants in a directive role are generally viewed as offering expert and technical consultation. They help consultees solve problems through their knowledge about issues of interest to the consultees. A clinic may hire the consultant to assist in purchasing the software and teaching employees to use it effectively. For example, a consultant may be hired to help managers of a company do a better job at interacting with employees who will be "downsized. The nondirective consultant might conduct role plays and critique the performance to help managers practice this difficult task. Directive consultation generally is task-oriented (the consultants provide expert assistance in solving problems), whereas the nondirective approach is process-oriented or facilitative (J. Physicians and nurses on a cardiology unit are wondering how to assist patients in losing weight and exercising after they leave the hospital. Physicians and nurses on a pediatric unit request help in developing a program to minimize adolescents from being sexually involved with other patients on the unit. Physicians and nurses are concerned about how to help dialysis patients cope with feelings of anxiety and depression.
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These students often must return to spasms muscle twitching buy generic rumalaya liniment 60 ml online their graduate training programs following the completion of internship in order to spasms icd-9 discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml amex complete (and defend before a committee of faculty) their doctoral dissertations xanax spasms buy generic rumalaya liniment 60 ml line. Many of the strategies and principles for applying to graduate school are applicable to clinical internship programs. Many training sites are very selective and seek graduate students who have outstanding academic credentials as well as excellent clinical training and experiences. Applications are obtained online and must be completed on or around December 1 of each year for those interested in the programs that begin the following July 1 or September 1. However, internship programs are not allowed to make offers of admission until a set date in February of each year. Activities during the clinical internship usually focus specifically on clinical training. Psychotherapy, psychological testing, and consultation with a variety of patient populations is expected. Interns also typically participate in seminars on topics such as psychotherapy, psychological testing, professional ethics, among others. Following the successful completion of the clinical internship and all of the requirements of the graduate training program (including the doctoral dissertation), the doctorate is awarded. Anyone wishing to practice clinical psychology must obtain a license to practice from their state licensing board. Some postdoctoral fellowships (especially research fellowships) last three or four years. Finally, once postdoctoral training is successfully completed, one is now eligible to take the licensing examination in order to be fully licensed as a psychologist and eligible to practice and function as an independent professional. Four years of college followed by at least four years of graduate school, a year of clinical internship and finally one or more years of postdoctoral training have been completed before licensing is possible. Certification laws control the use of the word psychologist such that only those who meet legal state standards are allowed to call themselves or represent themselves to the public as psychologists. While certification laws protect the title psychologist from being misused, certification laws do not impact the practice of psychological services. In addition to protection of the title psychologist, licensing laws provide guidelines and restrictions in defining what constitutes the practice of psychological services. Almost all licensing laws provide a generic license for psychologists without acknowledgment or restrictions on specialty or subspecialty. Therefore, contrary to what many believe, states do not generally recognize or have a specific license available for clinical psychologists separate from other practicing psychologists. In fact, in many states, such as California, it is not permissible to advertise to the public as a "clinical psychologist" or a "licensed clinical psychologist" because the state does not issue specialty licenses. Since the certification and licensing processes are conducted at the state level, each state develops its own laws and procedures. The Model Act includes minimum educational requirements as well as guidelines concerning the suspension and revocation of licenses. Because most states maintain licensing laws rather than certification laws, licensing laws will be highlighted here. Postdoctoral training is generally the time when most of the intensive specialization training occurs. Some authors have warned that clinical psychology students often try to specialize too early in their careers and do not adequately obtain basic clinical psychology skills prior to specialization (Matarazzo, 1987; Plante, 1996b). Matarazzo (1987) warned that it is important to keep in mind that psychology is one field that has many applications rather than a set of numerous and distinct specialties. Each specialization, through their representative professional organization(s), typically offers guidelines for the specific training and educational requirement that are suggested to become competent in a specialty area. Certification and/or Licensure Certification and licensure procedures are legally defined and regulated at the state level by state boards of psychology. The role of the psychology board is to set minimum standards for admission to the profession, conduct licensing examinations, and regulate the practice of psychology in order to protect the public from professional misconduct. Becoming a Clinical Psychologist: A Road Map must be submitted to the state board of psychology in order to be allowed to take the licensing examination. While this procedure differs from state to state, all boards review applications to ensure that the state criteria for exam eligibility have been met.